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Examples of factors that should be evaluated to determine the level of risk (high, moderate, low) include but are not limited to:
A. Fluoride exposure
B. Tobacco exposure including smoking, smokeless/spit tobacco and second-hand smoke
C. Nutrition history and dietary practices including consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages
D. Systemic diseases/conditions (e.g., diabetes, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune, etc.)
E. Prescriptions and over-the-counter medications, and complementary therapies and practices (e.g., fluoride, herbal, vitamin and other supplements, daily aspirin, probiotics)
F. Salivary function and xerostomia
G. Age and gender
H. Genetics and family history
I. Habit and lifestyle behaviors
1. Cultural issues
2. Substance abuse (recreational drugs, prescription medication, alcohol)
3. Eating disorders/weight loss surgery
4. Piercing and body modification
5. Oral habits
6. Sports and recreation (swimming, extreme sports [marathon, triathlon], energy drinks/ gels
J. Physical disability (morbid obesity, vision and/ or hearing loss, osteoarthritis, joint replacement)
K. Psychological, cognitive, and social considerations
1. Domestic violence
2. Physical, emotional, or sexual abuse
3. Behavioral
4. Psychiatric
5. Special needs
6. Literacy
7. Economic
8. Stress
9. Neglect

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Risk assessment is a qualitative and quantitative evaluation based on the health history and clinical assessment to identify any risks to general and oral health. The data provide the clinician with the information to develop and design strategies for preventing or limiting disease and promoting health.

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